What is Functional dyspepsia?

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a digestive disorder characterized by symptoms such as bloating, fullness, upper abdominal pain, nausea, and early feeling of fullness during or after eating. Unlike other digestive disorders, FD is not associated with any structural or biochemical abnormalities in the digestive system. The exact cause of FD is unknown, but some contributing factors may include:

It is important to see a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

What is post prandial distress syndrome?

Postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by symptoms of upper abdominal pain, fullness, bloating, and nausea after eating. PDS is similar to functional dyspepsia, but with a specific emphasis on postmeal symptoms. The exact cause of PDS is not known, but some possible factors include delayed gastric emptying, altered gut hormone secretion, and increased sensitivity of the gut to stretch and gas. PDS is often treated with dietary modifications, lifestyle changes, and medication to relieve symptoms and improve gut function.

What is Visceral pain hypersensitivity?

Visceral pain hypersensitivity is a condition in which there is increased sensitivity to pain in the internal organs, such as the intestines. This type of pain is often experienced as abdominal discomfort, cramping, bloating, and tenderness. Visceral pain hypersensitivity is seen in several gastrointestinal disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The exact cause of visceral pain hypersensitivity is not well understood, but it is thought to be related to changes in the processing of pain signals by the nervous system, increased gut sensitivity, and altered gut motility. Treatment for visceral pain hypersensitivity may include dietary changes, medications to relieve symptoms, and therapy to manage stress and anxiety.

What is Supragastric belching?

Supragastric belching (SGB) is a condition characterized by frequent and excessive belching, which is not due to swallowed air or gastrointestinal (GI) causes such as acid reflux or bloating. SGB is believed to be caused by a dysfunction in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and/or pharyngeal muscles, leading to an overproduction of air and excessive belching. The exact cause of SGB is not well understood and the condition can be difficult to diagnose and treat. However, it has been associated with psychological factors such as stress and anxiety, as well as with certain medical conditions such as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Treatment may include lifestyle modifications, medications, and in some cases, surgery to correct any underlying anatomical abnormalities.

What is Low stomach acid (achlorhydria)

Low stomach acid, also known as achlorhydria, is a condition in which the stomach does not produce sufficient amounts of hydrochloric acid. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including indigestion, heartburn, bloating, belching, and abdominal pain. Low stomach acid can result from certain medical conditions, such as gastritis, hypothyroidism, and pernicious anemia. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antacids, proton pump inhibitors, and H2 blockers. In some cases, lifestyle factors, such as stress and poor dietary habits, can also contribute to low stomach acid levels.

What is Bile salt malabsorption?

Bile salt malabsorption is a condition in which the body is unable to properly absorb bile salts. Bile salts are produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, where they are released into the small intestine to help with the digestion of fats. When bile salts are not properly absorbed, they can accumulate in the intestine, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, bloating, and abdominal pain. Bile salt malabsorption is often associated with other digestive conditions, such as Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Treatment for bile salt malabsorption may include dietary changes, such as reducing the intake of fats and increasing the intake of soluble fiber, as well as medications that help absorb or replace bile salts.

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